Cisco CDO = Cisco Defense Orchestrator
Cisco FTD = Cisco Firepower Threat Defense
Cisco FMC = Cisco Firepower Management Center
Cisco FDM = Cisco Firepower Device Management
Cisco FXOS = Cisco Firepower eXtensible Operating System
Cisco FTD is unified code for firewall capabilities AND IPS capabilities
Cisco FMC is your application to manage FTD devices (off-box)
Cisco FDM is your application to manage one FTD device (on-box)
Cisco FXOS is underlay OS in Cisco Firepower 4100/9300 chassis where you can install above it ASA , FTD , Radware DDoS software ( AS three physical modules in one chassis )
Cisco CDO is your cloud application to manage ASA , ASA 5500-X with FirePOWER Services , Firepower 2100/4100/9300
Cisco Firewalls that can use FTD are ASA 5500-X with FirePOWER Services , Firepower 2100/4100/9300.
Cisco FMC can manage also Firepower 7000/8000 and Firepower Services for Cisco ASA.
Cisco FXOS is the underlying operating system that manages hardware platforms like FP4100 and FP9300.
Those platforms can run different applications on them, such as FTD ,Cisco ASA image, or even a third-party software like Radware anti-DoS.
In old days we used to have the following:
ASA is device with code for firewall capabilities only
ASDM is your application to manage ASA devices
Firepower 7000/8000 device with code for IPS capabilities only
Cisco FMC (aka FireSIGHT) is your application to manage Firepower 7000/8000 and other Firepower devices
ASA with Firepower is device for firewall capabilities AND IPS capabilities, this code could be unified (FTD) or separate ASA code + Firepower (ips) code , in this case only Firepower code can be managed by Cisco FMC , for ASA we use ASDM.
Lets not forget Cisco firewall for ICS and IoT networks ISA 3000:
Cisco Industrial Security Appliance 3000 platforms can run either the Cisco ASA Firewall, Cisco ASA Firewall plus Sourcefire FirePOWER (ASA+FP) or Cisco Firepower Threat Defense (FTD).
Also for small business we have Meraki MX Series Firewall
Cisco Firepower Compatibility Guide